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MT-IBIS Glossary

This page provides definitions for common public health assessment and epidemiology concepts. It also serves as an index to additional resources on the MT-IBIS system.

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10 Essential Public Health Services

The 10 Essential Public Health Services were developed in 1994 by the U.S. Public Health Service and include services such as "Monitor health status," "Diagnose and investigate health problems," and "Mobilize community partnerships." For more information, see CDC's National Public Health Performance Standards Program Website.
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A.S.T.H.O.

The Association of State and Territorial Health Officers (ASTHO) is the national nonprofit organization representing public health agencies in the United States, the U.S. Territories, and the District of Columbia. ASTHO's voting membership includes the chief health officials for each U.S. state and territory. ASTHO members formulate and influence sound public health policy and promote excellence in state-based public health practice. ASTHO Website. See also N.A.C.C.H.O..


Advocacy

Advocacy refers to organized efforts to change or influence policies. See also Policy.


Age-adjusted Rate

An age-adjusted rate is a form of a rate that controls for age effects, allowing better comparability of rates across geographic areas. Age-adjustment may also be used to control for age effects when comparing across several years of data, as the age distribution of the population changes over time. See also Direct Age Standardization [more on age-adjusted rates...]


Age-specific Rate

An age-specific rate is a rate in which both the numerator (number of events) and denominator (number in population at risk) are limited to a specific age group. It is calculated by dividing the total number of health events for the specific age group of interest by the total population in that age group. [more on age-specific rates...]


Artifact

An artifact is any representation in data, such as choice of methodology, or observational or data entry errors, that would cause a datum to misrepresent its true value.


Assessment

Assessment is the regular and systematic collection, assembly, analysis, and dissemination of information about the health of a community. Public health assessment, policy development and assurance of access to quality health care are considered the three core functions of government in public health. (Institute of Medicine (1988) The Future of Public Health, National Academies Press.) See also Community Health Assessment.


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Birth Rate

Birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 persons (males and females) in the population. See also Fertility Rate.


Bridged-Race

Data collected using the 1997 OMB standard for collection of race and ethnicity information are not directly comparable to those that were collected using the 1977 standard. To permit trend analysis, a methodology was developed to "bridge" population estimates that were collected using the 1997 standard back to the categories used in the 1977 standard.
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C.S.T.E.

CSTE stands for "Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists." CSTE is a professional organization for public health epidemiologists. Visit the CSTE Website for more information.


Cause / Cause-and-Effect

There is philosophical debate about the meaning of 'cause,' but for a working definition in epidemiology, we can use a definition from Rothman and Greenland, "...a cause of a specific disease event [is] an antecedent event, condition, or characteristic that was necessary for the occurrence of the disease at the moment it occurred, given that other conditions are fixed."


Coefficient of Variation (CV)


Community Health Assessment

Community health assessment is a process of identifying and quantifying the needs, conditions, and resources of communities with respect to health and health care. Community health assessment processes include gathering secondary or published data and primary data (locally-generated data through surveys, focus groups, interviews, or other means); analyzing and interpreting the data; and establishing priorities for community health improvement. See also Assessment.


Comparability Ratio

A comparability ratio measures the level of agreement between ICD-9 and ICD-10 classification systems. NCHS calculated comparability ratios for 113 selected causes of death by using a double-coding exercise using 1996 death data. NCHS coded 1.8 million death certifications from 1996 first using ICD-9 and then using ICD-10. Based on that double-coding, NCHS has produced the set of Comparability Ratios for 113 Selected Causes of Death. Each ratio is an expression of the results of the comparison as a ratio of death for a cause of death by the later revision divided by the number of cause of death coded and classified by the earlier revision. To accurately portray trends that include both years 1980-1998 and 1999 on, the death counts or rates for the earlier years must be "comparability modified." This is accomplished by multiplying the earlier death count (or rate) by the comparability ratio for that cause of death. Use comparability-adjusted mortality counts and rates only when you need to display years 1998 and earlier together with years 1999 and later. [Click here for comparability ratios for NCHS leading causes.]


Confidence Interval

The confidence interval may be thought of as the range of probable true values for a statistic. In general, as a population or sample size increases, the confidence interval gets smaller. Estimates with smaller confidence intervals are referred to as more "precise." Less precise estimates, such as those calculated from small numbers, tend to have wide confidence intervals. Typically, the 95% confidence interval (calculated as 1.96 times the standard error of a statistic) indicates the range of values within which the statistic would fall 95% of the time if the researcher were to calculate the statistic (e.g., a percentage or rate) from an infinite number of samples of the same size drawn from the same base population. [more on confidence intervals...]


Confounding Variable

The confounding variable is a variable that is related to, and may obscure one's view of, the variable of interest. For instance, when examining death rates across populations, the population's age distribution can be a confounding variable because higher death rates will be found in populations with a greater proportion of persons in older age groups. In such a case, one could use an age-adjusted rate to compare the populations.


Count

A count is simply the number of health events, such as a death or a reported disease incident, that occurred within a specified time period. [more on health event counts...]


Crude Rates

A crude rate is a rate that has not been adjusted for artifacts or confounding variables, such as the age and sex composition of a population. [more on crude rates...]
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Descriptive Epidemiology

The study of the amount and distribution of a disease in a specified population by person, place, and time.


Denominator

The denominator is the divisor in division (for instance, where 12/3=4, the number 3 is known as the divisor, 12 is the dividend and 4 is the quotient). In public health, the denominator for a disease rate is the number of persons (or person-years) at risk, or the estimated population. For instance, for 23 deaths in a population of 15,000, the death rate would be 23/15,000, or 0.001533, or 153.3 per 100,000 population. In that example, 15,000 is referred to as the denominator. DPHHS standard population data files


Direct Age Standardization

Direct age standardization, also known as direct age adjustment, uses the observed rates in an index population and adjusts them to the age distribution of a standard population. See also Age-adjusted Rate, [more on age-adjusted rates...]


Disparities

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Endemic

A disease or condition that is present in a community at all times but at a relatively low level.


Epidemic

The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community or region during a given time period.


Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of how often disease occurs in different groups of people and why. In public health, epidemiology is also concerned with development of an appropriate response to disease in a population.


Ethnicity

Ethnicity is a term that refers to social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots which may occur despite racial differences. Ethnicity shapes a group's culture - food, language, music, and customs. We all have an ethnicity, but the term is often used only in reference to persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity versus those of non-Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. See also Race.


Evaluation

Evaluation refers to a set of tools or procedures to demonstrate or measure progress in achieving specific outcomes, goals, and objectives. Evaluation involves the systematic collection, analysis, and reporting of information to assist in planning and decision-making. Program-level evaluations measure benefits for specific populations served. Community-level evaluations measure benefits for community residents resulting from changes in community systems, organizations, neighborhoods, or networks.


Evidence-based

Evidence-based public health practice is the careful, intentional and sensible use of current best scientific evidence in making decisions about the choice and application of public health interventions. [more on evidence-based public health practice...]


Evidence-based Community Health

Community programs, strategies, or interventions that have been shown through research or evaluation to have been effective in achieving desired health outcomes with similar populations or communities. See also Evidence-based.


Experiment

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FIPS Codes

FIPS stands for Federal Information Processing Standards Codes for states, counties, and named populated places. The state FIPS code for Montana is 30000. Montana county codes are not consecutive and range from 35001 (Beaverhead) to 30111 (Yellowstone). U.S. Geological Survey FIPS Website


Fundamentals of Public Health

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Gestational Age

Gestational Age is the period of time a baby is carried in the uterus or the duration of the pregnancy, measured from the first day of the last menstrual period. Full-term gestation is considered between 37 and 42 weeks. Average Gestational age for Montana births can be calculated using the Births Custom Query section of the MT-IBIS Website.


Goal

A goal is a statement used in a planning process that describes a future desired state. Goals provide programmatic direction. Goals focus on ends rather than means. See also Objective and S.M.A.R.T. Objectives.


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Health Care Reform

Health care reform generally refers to changes in the health care and public health systems that are contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPAC) passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Obama on March 23, 2010. The PPAC is a complex and far-reaching piece of legislation that contains provisions to expand access to health insurance, prevent abusive practices by insurance companies, reduce the cost of health care, and support an expanded system of public health, prevention, and health promotion.


Health Disparities

Differences in health status among distinct populations, such as racial and ethnic groups, rural vs. urban, different income groups, and populations of specific geographic areas. Health disparities generally refer to differences in health that are closely linked with social or economic disadvantage. Health disparities negatively affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater social or economic obstacles to health. These obstacles stem from characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion such as race or ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, mental health, sexual orientation, or geographic location. Other characteristics include cognitive, sensory, or physical disability. (Adapted from Healthy People 2020, U.S. Dept. of Health and human Services)


Health Planning Regions, Montana

Montana's Counties are classified into five health regions. Map of Montana's Health Planning Regions.


HealthyPeople2020

Healthy People 2010 is an initiative of the U.S. Public Health Service that established over 400 health objectives for the Nation through a public process. The initiative also defined quantifiable measures. The objectives are to be achieved by the year 2010. They are typically used by public health organizations and programs to track progress and improve population health status. HealthyPeople2020 Website.
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ICD Codes

ICD Stands for International Classification of Diseases. It is a coding system maintained by the World Health Organization and the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics used to classify causes of death on death certificates and diagnoses, injury causes, and medical procedures for hospital and emergency department visits. These codes are updated every decade or so to account for advances in medical technology. The U.S. is currently using the 10th revision (ICD-10) to code causes of death. The 9th revision (ICD-9) is still in use for hospital and emergency department visits until October of 2015. [more on ICD codes...]


ICD-O Codes

Specialized ICD codes, called ICD-Oncology, or ICD-O, are used to classify cancer diagnoses by site and type (e.g., lung, breast, leukemia, lymphoma). For more on the oncology ICD codes, see the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry) Website.


Incidence

Incidence is the number of new cases (e.g., of disease) in a given period of time. See also Prevalence.


Index Population


Indicator

A health indicator is a numeric measure that depicts population health or health system status on a core public health construct.


Infant Mortality Rate

Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant under one year of age. The Infant Mortality Rate is most often calculated as infant deaths in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year (death period method). The rate may also be calculated as death of infants born in a given year per 1,000 infants born in that year (birth cohort method). See also Neonatal Mortality Rate, and Postneonatal Mortality Rate.


Intercensal

Occurring between decennial (every ten year) censuses. E.g., 2000-2010 intercensal population estimates are estimates that were derived for years 2000-2010, taking into account the 2010 decennial census population estimates. See also Postcensal.


Investigation

Surveillance is the systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data on an ongoing basis. Surveillance is conducted to identify potential public health threats, and to gain knowledge of the pattern of disease occurrence and risk in a community. See also Surveillance.
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Kotelchuck Index

The Kotelchuck Index, also called the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) Index, uses two crucial elements obtained from birth certificate data - when prenatal care began (initiation) and the number of prenatal visits from when prenatal care began until delivery (received services). The Kotelchuck index classifies the adequacy of initiation as Inadequate (received fewer than 50% of expected visits), Intermediate (50%-79%), Adequate (80%-109%), or Adequate Plus (110% of visits or more).


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Leading Causes of Death


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M.M.W.R.

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly report of state-based notifiable disease surveillance and other timely events of interest prepared and distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Website


M.M.W.R. Week

The MMWR week is the week of the epidemiologic year for which the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) disease report is assigned for the purposes of MMWR disease incidence reporting and publishing. When a notifiable disease case is reported to the state or local health department, it is assigned (coded) to an MMWR Week. Calendar Dates for MMWR Weeks (2006-2015)


Maternal Mortality Rate

Number of deaths from complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium per 100,000 live births = (Total Maternal Deaths / Total Live Births) x 100,000.


Mean

The mean is a measure of central tendency, also called an "average." The mean is calculated by summing the values in a set and then dividing by the number of values that are in the set. For instance, John is 30 and Mary is 38. Their mean age is (30+38)/2, or 68/2, or 34.


Median

The median is a measure of central tendency. It is the 50th percentile, or the value for which 50% of the scores are lower and 50% of the scores are higher. The median is not sensitive to extreme values, making it a better choice than the mean as a measure of central tendency for variables with extreme values. For instance, household income has a fixed "floor" value of zero, but on the other end, there are typically a small number of extremely large values. Those extreme values will drive up the calculated value of the average or mean.


Mode

The mode is a measure of central tendency. It is the score that occurs with the greatest frequency. In other words, the most common score.


Morbidity

Morbidity is another term for illness. Morbidities are not deaths, and occur among the population of living persons. Examples of morbidities include Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and traumatic brain injury. Incidence and Prevalence are measures often used to describe the extent of morbidity in a population.


Mortality

Mortality is another term for death. A mortality rate is the number of deaths due to a disease divided by the number of persons in the population.
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N.A.C.C.H.O.

The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). NACCHO's members are the 2700 local health departments across the United States. NACCHO's mission is to be a leader, partner, catalyst, and voice for local health departments to ensure the conditions that promote health and equity, combat disease, and improve the quality and length of all lives. NACCHO Website. See also A.S.T.H.O..


N.C.H.S. Leading Causes

In order to provide a ranking standard the NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) prepared a list of 113 selected causes of death that are reported on the death certificate. The NCHS 50 leading causes of death are taken from the list of 113. Other classification schemes are used, such as the STIPDA external causes of injury and the ICD-O causes of cancer deaths. Leading causes of death for Montana can be calculated using the Mortality Custom Query section of the MT-IBIS Website. [list of NCHS leading causes...]


Neonatal Mortality Rate

Deaths among infants under 28 days of age per 1,000 live births = (Total Deaths Among Infants <28 Days of Age / Total Live Births) x 1,000. See also Infant Mortality Rate, and Postneonatal Mortality Rate.


Numerator

The numerator is the dividend in division (for instance, where 12/3=4, the number 3 is known as the divisor, 12 is the dividend and 4 is the quotient). In public health, the numerator for a disease rate is the number of cases of, or persons with a health condition of interest. For instance, for 23 deaths in a population of 15,000, the death rate would be 23/15,000, or 0.001533, or 153.3 per 100,000 population. In that example, 23 is referred to as the numerator.
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Objective

An objective is a statement of an action that leads to achievement of a goal. Objectives should be specific, measurable, and time-limited. Objectives tell how to meet a goal. They focus on the means rather than the end. See also Goal and S.M.A.R.T. Objectives.


Occurrent Events

Occurrent events are those that occurred in a particular geographic area. For example, 2007 Montana occurrent births is the number of births that occurred in Montana during 2007 (regardless of the mother's permanent residence). Reporting of vital statistics by residence is considered the standard or default for general data dissemination since it provides health status information for residents of a particular geographic area. See also Resident Events.


Outcomes

Outcomes are planned results, benefits, or changes that occur as a result of interventions, objectives, strategies, or activities. Outcomes may be short-term, intermediate, or long-term. Outcomes may be population-based, program-based, or community-based.
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Pandemic

A pandemic occurs when an epidemic becomes very widespread and affects a whole region, a continent, or the entire world. See also Epidemic.


Parity

Parity is the number of previous live-born infants a woman has delivered. For instance, woman who has not previously given birth is considered "nulliparous," with parity equal to 0.


Policy

A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve intended outcome(s). Policies can be written or verbal, specific or general, and can refer to actions of governmental entities, businesses, schools, institutions, or other organized bodies. See also Advocacy.


Population-Based

Pertaining to a general population defined by geopolitical boundaries. This population is also the denominator and/or the sampling frame. It is not based on a subset of the population, such as those enrolled in a specific program.


Postcensal

Occurring after a decennial (every ten year) census, and prior to the following decennial census. E.g., 2001-2009 postcensal population estimates are estimates that were derived for years 2001-2009, without the benefit of the 2010 decennial census population estimates. See also Intercensal.


Postneonatal Mortality Rate

Deaths among infants aged one month (28 days) to 364 days per 1,000 live births = (Total Deaths Among Infants 28-364 Days of Age / Total Live Births) x 1,000. See also Infant Mortality Rate, and Neonatal Mortality Rate.


Prenatal Care

Prenatal care refers to healthcare visits prior to and during pregnancy. Prenatal care is recommended to detect and prevent any potential problems and ensure the healthiest possible delivery and birth. Doctors recommend that mothers-to-be see their health care provider before the 13th week of pregnancy and to go back for at least 13 visits before birth. (Go before week 13 and get 13 visits.)


Preterm Birth

A Preterm birth is a birth that occurs before the 37th week of gestation. Percentage of Montana births that were pre-term can be calculated using the Births Custom Query section of the MT-IBIS Website. See also Gestational Age.


Prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary)

A framework for categorizing prevention programs based on the stage of the natural history of a disease or injury: Primary prevention -- An intervention implemented before there is evidence of a disease or injury. This strategy can reduce or eliminate causative risk factors (risk reduction). Secondary prevention -- An intervention implemented after a disease has begun, but before it is symptomatic (screening and treatment). Tertiary prevention -- An intervention implemented after a disease or injury is established. This strategy can prevent sequelae (further disability or disease).


Prevalence

Prevalence is the number of existing cases (e.g., of a disease or risk factor) in a given period of time. See also Incidence.


Proportion

A proportion is an expression of the relationship of the magnitude of a part to the whole, and is typically expressed as a decimal fraction. For instance, the proportion ".25" indicates that the part is 25%, or one quarter, the magnitude of the whole. See also Ratio.


Public Health, Fundamentals of

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow). Fundamentals of Public Health is a brief (two-day) course for community representatives that includes sections on the history of public health, population-based approaches to health, basic epidemiology, community health assessment, community health planning, and health disparities/social determinants of health.
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Race

Race is defined as a human population considered distinct based on physical characteristics. It is important to note, however, that race is predominantly a social construct, and that genetic science has determined that only 2 percent of our genes are ultimately responsible for the visible differences such as skin color. See also Ethnicity.


Rate

A rate is a special instance of a ratio in which the quantity in the numerator is also included in the denominator. In public health, the numerator is typically the number of people among whom an event occurred during a certain period of time, and the denominator is the total number of people in the population at risk for the same period of time. Rates are typically multiplied by some factor of ten so that the result is a whole number, for instance, "671 deaths per 100,000 population." [more on health event rates...]


Ratio

A ratio is a comparison between two numbers which are typically separated by a colon (:). One example is the ratio of the width to the height of a TV monitor (4:3) (read as, "four to three"). A ratio may also be expressed as a fraction, such as 4/3. See also Rate.


Regions


Relative Risk

The ratio of the risk of disease in exposed individuals to the risk of disease in non-exposed individuals. Relative Risk = Risk in exposed Risk in non-exposed


Relative Standard Error (RSE)

Relative Standard Error, (RSE) is a measure of the statistical stability of an estimate. It is calculated as the ratio of the standard error to the point estimate (e.g. rate, average), and is often expressed as a percentage. An estimate with an RSE greater than 0.30 (30%) is generally considered unstable, and an estimate with an RSE greater than 0.50 should not be used to infer population risk. The Relative Standard Error is also known as the Coefficient of Variation. [more on reliability...]


Reliability

Reliability is a property of a measurement that refers to its stability, or the degree to which measurements of identical phenomena yield identical results. In public health, we often use measures such as death rates or birth outcomes to indicate the true underlying risk of illness or disability in a population. Often such measures, when observed in small populations, are said to yield "unreliable results" because the observations tend to very considerably over repeated observations, such as from year to year. That fluctuation makes them an unreliable measure, and a poor indication of the true underlying population risk. [more on reliability...]


Resident Events

Resident events are those that occurred to residents of a particular geographic area. For example, 2007 Montana resident births is the number of births that occurred to Montana resident mothers during 2008 (regardless of where they occurred). Reporting of vital statistics by residence is considered the standard or default for general data dissemination since it provides health status information for residents of a particular geographic area. See also Occurrent Events.


Risk Factor

A risk factor is a personal, social or environmental characteristic that is associated with an increased risk of disease, infection or injury.
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S.M.A.R.T. Objectives

"SMART" is an acronym for objectives that are Specific (What is the specific task?), Measurable (What are the standards or parameters?), Achievable (Is the task feasible?), Realistic (Are sufficient resources available?), and Time-Bound (What are the start and end dates?). For more information, visit the CDC Healthy Youth Website. See also Objectives and Goals.


Small Numbers

"Small numbers" is a term that is used to denote a population or a survey sample that is relatively small, yielding imprecise estimates for the health event of interest. "Small" is defined differently for different purposes, but in general, populations that yield 20 or fewer health events in the specific time period are generally considered small for most purposes. The precision of an estimate may be indicated by the confidence interval for the estimate. As the population size decreases, the confidence interval widens, indicating less precision, or less "confidence" with regard to how well the estimate reflects the true underlying risk in that population.


Social Determinants of Health

The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. Social determinants of health are the complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that are responsible for most health inequities. These social structures and economic systems include the social environment, physical environment, health services, and structural and societal factors. Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world. (Adapted from the World Health Organization) See also Health Disparities.


Stability


Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR)

Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) is a ratio between the observed number of deaths in an study population and the number of deaths that would be expected, based on the age- and sex-specific rates in a standard population and the age and sex distribution of the study population. If the ratio of observed:expected deaths is greater than 1.0, there is said to be "excess deaths" in the study population. See also Ratio. [more on the SMR...]


Statistic

A statistic is a number that summarizes data. A descriptive statistic summarizes data in a limited or bounded dataset. Examples include the average age of students in a class and the percentage of employees who purchased dependent health coverage. An inferential statistic summarizes data in a sample drawn from a larger population, of which the sample is intended to be representative. Statistics calculated from the sample are used to make inferences about the population, and are typically accompanied by a confidence interval, used to suggest the precision of the statistic. Examples include the percentage of youth in a survey who smoked cigarettes, or the average body mass index among sampled persons.


Strategy

A strategy is an overall approach or direction for an initiative: a set of objectives which, taken together, are likely to achieve a desired outcome. Evidence-based strategies are approaches which have been shown through research, evaluation, or experience to be likely to achieve the desired results. Promising strategies are those which are currently being tested or evaluated, with early indications that they are likely to be successful in achieving the desired results. See also Evidence-based.


Study Population

The term "study population" is used to refer to the population of interest, in contrast to the "standard population" which is used to provide a basis for age standardization of rates.


Surveillance

Surveillance is the systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data on an ongoing basis. Surveillance is conducted to identify potential public health threats, and to gain knowledge of the pattern of disease occurrence and risk in a community. See also Investigation.
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Trend

A trend is a view of multiple years of data so you can see how rates change over time. A trend is often shown as a simple line graph so that the trend is easily visible. Due to the changing age distribution of the population (i.e., the "aging" of the population over time) it is useful to use age-adjusted rates to compare rates over several years. The term, "secular trend" is also used to refer to trends over time.


True Experiment

A true experiment has the following characteristics. There must be a study group and a control group. Study participants must be randomly assigned to the study and control groups. There must be an experimenter-manipulated independent variable to which study group is exposed. Without a true experiment, it is very difficult to establish a causal relationship.


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Underlying Cause of Death

Underlying cause of death is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the disease or injury that initiated the train of events leading directly to death, or the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury.


Urban and Rural Counties, Montana

MT DPHHS utilizes the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counites. Small Metro counties are those with a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population less than 250,000; Micropolitan counties are those with an urban cluster population of 10,000 - 49,999; Noncore counties are those with a population less than 10,000.

See our Map of Montana Urban-Rural Counties


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Validity

Validity is a property of a measurement that refers to its accuracy, or the degree to which observations reflect the true value of a phenomenon. In public health, we are lucky because the validity of most of our measures is really quite good. "Cause of death" on death certificates is certified by a physician. Survey measures have been tested to maximize validity. Birthweight is measured and reported at the birth hospital. There are some measures that we question, for instance self-reported body weight, but on the whole, the measures we use have a high degree of validity. [more on validity...]
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Weighted Average

The weighted average, or weighted mean is an average in which the data elements have been differentially weighted. Data elements with a high weight contribute more to the weighted average than do elements with a low weight. If all data components in the calculation have the same weight, it is called the arithmetic mean. In the case of age-adjusted rates for health events, a weighted mean is used to adjust, or age-standardize, health event rates for two or more populations with different age compositions.
X

Index: 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z | Back to Top

Y

Index: 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z | Back to Top

Y.P.L.L.

YPLL stands for "Years of Potential Life Lost," and is a measure of premature mortality due to one or more conditions. In Montana IBIS, it is calculated as age 75 minus the age at death.
Z

Index: 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z | Back to Top



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The information provided above is from the Office of Epidemiology and Scientifict Support, Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services MT-IBIS web site (http://dphhs.mt.gov/). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 15 November 2019 19:21:45 from Office of Epidemiology and Scientific Support, Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services, Indicator-Based Public Healt Information System for Public Health Web site: http://dphhs.mt.gov/ ".

Content updated: Fri, 31 May 2019 15:34:07 MDT